Plyometric training - jump exercises in which muscles exert maximum force with the goal of increasing power - is widely adopted by many coaches as a main training method for athletes. However, when unable to adapt or when overloaded in training, it could cause damage to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD).
Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol with many health benefits, including the prevention of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, reduction of oxidative stress, and anti-inflammatory effects.
RES has also been shown to minimise the harmful effects of exercise-induced muscle damage during recovery. In previous research, conducted by the team behind the current study, RES supplementation was found to effectively improve muscle strength and endurance performance, and reduce fatigue biochemical parameters after exercise.
The aim of the current double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to explore the prevention and protection benefits of different doses of RES supplementation on non-athletic males for plyometric-exercise-induced muscle damage (PEIMD) through the evaluation of exercise performance, muscle injury indicators, inflammation, and soreness.
Trans-resveratrol samples were purchased from Biotivia (New York). Each capsule contained trans-resveratrol (>98%, 500 mg), piperine (95%, 5 mg), and ploydation (98%, 5 mg). The capsules were separated into two equal parts taken in the morning and evening each day for a total of 10 days following baseline assessments.
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Thirty-six participants were enrolled, counterbalanced by their performance in the countermovement jump (CMJ) test, and divided into three groups: placebo (1000 mg/day methylcellulose), RES-500 (500 mg/day RES + 500 mg/day methylcellulose), or RES-1000 (1000 mg/day RES).
Participants visited the lab at least six times. Upon their first visit, medical histories and exercise habits were recorded, and anthropometry, exercise performance, and muscle soreness were measured 10 days before placebo or resveratrol supplementation.
After PEIMD, the exercise performance, muscle soreness, and muscle damage biomarkers were measured for 72 hours to track conditions of muscle recovery.
At 72 hours post-EIMD, the force peak (FP) and rate of force development (RFD) of the counter movement jump (CMJ) in RES groups showed no significant difference compared to that at baseline but was significantly greater than the placebo group.
In the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), supplementation in the RES group had a better recovery effect on the relative peak power (RPP), relative mean power (RMP) and fatigue index (FI) (p < 0.05), especially in the high-dose group. For the detection of muscle pain after PEIMD, the RES supplement group was significantly better than the placebo group (p < 0.05).
In addition, for muscle damage indexes, such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), after PEIMD, supplementation with RES could significantly reduce and accelerate recovery (p < 0.05). In addition, the blood biochemical indicators of blood count, liver function, and kidney function showed that RES will not cause adverse risks to the human body.
The authors conclude that preloading RES supplements can reduce the levels of muscle damage, inflammation, and soreness caused by PEIMD, and subsequently affect the recovery of power and anaerobic performances.
The report states: "This might be a potential strategy to maintain the quality and intensity of training with the high repetition demand of eccentric exercises. Therefore, plyometric exercises combined with suitable RES supplementation could be an effective candidate for controlling muscle damage, improving physical adaption, and recovering anaerobic capacity."
The report notes a number of limitations to this study, including that it focused on healthy male adults, which limits generalisability, and they could not control diet so nutrition was not standardised. They also note that muscle puncture would be a more direct and accurate assessment method.
Huang, C.C., Lee, M.C., Ho, C.S., Hsu, Y.J., Ho, C.C., and Kan, N.-W.
Protective and Recovery Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Muscle Damage following Acute Plyometric Exercise