Addition of a standardized extract of black elderberry inhibited the growth of the bacteria, Branhamella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes, two strains often found in association with upper respiratory tract infections, by 70 percent, when used at a concentration of 10 percent, according to findings published in the open-access BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
“The activities shown by the elderberry liquid extract suggest that additional and alternative approaches to influenza infections might be provided by natural products,” wrote researchers led by Torsten Hain at the university’s Institute for Medical Microbiology.
The study used BerryPharma AG’s commercially-available Rubini ingredient, and the study was partially funded by BerryPharma.
History of use
BerryPharma AG recently released an updated version of a book originally written in 1644 in Latin by Dr Martin Blochwich. The book was subsequently translated into English and German in 1655 and reprinted in 1677.
The handbook, reportedly conceived as a reference guide for medical practitioners who lived in the countryside or villages of Europe, was subsequently forgotten before staff at BerryPharma AG “recognised the historical importance of this early work and wanted to share the rare opportunity to experience life in the 1670’s through the eyes of a progressive medical practitioner”, said the company in July 2010.
Building on these earlier accounts of the potential health benefits of elderberry, the new study reports the potential benefits of a liquid extract standardized to contain a minimum of 3.2 percent anthocyanins for immune health.
The German scientists used the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay to assess the extract’s antimicrobial and antiviral activity. At concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 percent, the extract was tested against two different strains of influenza virus, and three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacterium associated with upper respiratory tract infections.
Results showed (reportedly for the first time) that the extract was effective against Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci (Gram-positive), as well as Branhamella catarrhalis (Gram-negative).
In addition to 70 percent inhibition of all the bacteria at the 10 percent concentration level, when used at the highest concentration a growth inhibition of 99 percent was recorded.
For the two influenza viruses, inhibition of influenza A was about 30 percent, while influenza B was inhibited by 25 percent, said the researchers.
“The result would suggest that elderberry liquid extract blocks factors on the cell surface needed by [influenza A] for efficient infection of […] cells,” wrote the researchers.
“Since preliminary results of other investigations indicate an inhibitory effect of elderberry liquid extracts against influenza A and B viruses, it can be concluded that the molecular target of elderberry extract is common to both viral genera,” they added.
“Regarding the usability of the elderberry liquid extract for in vivo testings, a compromise between concentration and low viscosity should be found to provide the best possible results,” wrote the German researchers. “For practical purposes, an optimum route of administration would need to be determined and it would have to be decided which strategy to pursue in considering the potential of the extract.”
Source: BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine
2011, 11:16, doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-16
“Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses”
Authors: C. Krawitz, M.A. Mraheil, M. Stein, C. Imirzalioglu, E. Domann, S. Pleschka, T. Hain